Wednesday, April 13, 2011

YouTube Safe Music, how to use and properly credit composer and publishers on YouTube

A discussion on legal use of music on YouTube, how to properly credit composers and publishers of music used in YouTube videos, and how performance royalties apply to YouTube, Google Video and Metacafe hosted videos.


Obtaining YouTube music from a stock music library


Many people looking for music that they can legally use in their YouTube videos, Google Videos and Metacafe video productions, will visit a library of stock music such as this one.

Through these stock music libraries, music composers and publishers sell their music tracks for a one-off simple license fee, and when purchased, their music can be safely and legally used in videos that are posted online - whether it's on your own site, your blog, or on YouTube.

These fully legal music licenses are often sold for a low price, and typically a percentage of that direct sale price will be paid to the composer. This direct payment to the composer is usually not a whole lot, so the composer will rely on an additional payment from YouTube when his music is used in a YouTube video.

The way money makes its way from YouTube to music composers


Most composers are members of so called "performance rights societies" such as ASCAP, BMI, SESAC, PRS or others. The task of these societies is to oversee where, how, and how much their members' music is being broadcast and played in public. Based on how much their music has been used in public, the performance rights society pays the composer and publisher a certain amount of "performance royalties".

The performance rights societies in turn collect money from broadcasters of music. That includes TV stations, radio stations and most recenty also YouTube. YouTube is a "broadcaster" of video just as much as a TV station.

YouTube, in turn, collects money from their advertisers.

So, in a rather complex and convoluted way, you may say that money travels like this: Advertiser -> YouTube -> Performance rights society -> Music Composer.

I would like to stress that you, as a video producer and video uploader, do not pay any of these performance royalties. It does not cost you anything beyond the normal one-time stock music license fee, to use royalty-free music on YouTube. The money that YouTube pays to the performance rights societies originate from YouTube's advertisers - not from video uploaders.

In an ideal world, this is how it's supposed to work. The challenge however - and this is where the system is not yet good enough - is that YouTube have no idea exactly what music is playing in each of their millions of videos. They have no idea who wrote and who published how many minutes and seconds of music used in how many YouTube videos. There simply is no record of this.

Reality check


In the real world though, what happens most of the time is that YouTube just sends money to the performance rights organizations without any detailed lists of who this money is meant for. They simply don't know who composed the music in all their videos, and how this money should be divided amongst composers and publishers.

The performance rights society, in turn, receives a sum of money from YouTube and, frankly, they really don't know who to give this money to. So what they do is to "guess" the best they can, how much music, by which composer and publisher, has been used "most" in YouTube videos. They literally then divide up this money, on a percentage scale, among the composers who are already making the most royalties from traditional TV and radio broadcasts. They simply assume that the percentages will be likewise -- i.e. if Britney Spears has so-and-so much music played on the radio, then she probably also has a similar amount of music played at YouTube.

This is how YouTube's music royalties are divided as per today. Sadly, if you're a composer and you've had your music used in a YouTube video, it's unlikely that you'll ever see any performance royalties for that, unless you also happen to be on high rotation on MTV and the radio stations.

Going forward...


I have reason to believe, though, that YouTube and the performance rights organizations are trying to find a way to distribute the money better and more accurately.

Frankly, nobody will ever have the time to sit and listen through every YouTube video and find out who composed the music that's playing in that video. But what they can do is start asking video uploaders to put proper music credits in the video information when they upload it to YouTube. There is a text field where video uploaders can enter "more text" about their video, and this is a good place to include good and proper music credits.

This is why we at Shockwave-Sound.com now, if our music is used in a YouTube video, requires that our music be properly credited in the "more text" field. Here's an example of somebody who has done it correctly:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N-GkH8tFJvo

Notice these lines appearing in the "more info" text area about the video:
Track title: Away From Her
Composer: Alexander Khaskin (SOCAN - CAE#: 231945867)
Publisher: Lynne Publishing (PRS - CAE#: 541626758)

Track title: My Life
Composer: Alexander Khaskin (SOCAN - CAE#: 231945867)
Publisher: Lynne Publishing (PRS - CAE#: 541626758)

Being ready for future improvements


To be honest, even if music credits are included here, it does not mean that the composer and publisher will automatically get their fair and correct performance royalties. I believe that, as of today, nobody is checking these text areas for music credits and applying a share of the performance royalties to the correct composer.

But we have to start somewhere. We at Shockwave-Sound.com strongly believe that this is a step in the right direction and that eventually, YouTube and the performance rights organizations are going to find a way to "spider" the text areas for music credits and, with time, get better and better, more and more accurate distribution of the performance royalties that should rightfully be with the actual composers who made the music in the videos - rather than already high-earning pop artists who get all the YouTube money because they happen to have their music played on radio and MTV a lot.

When we ask you to credit our music as accurately and completely as possible when you upload a video that contains our music - it's really about future proofing. Soon, there will definitely be a system in place to find these music credits and then properly distribute the performance royalties. And when that happens, we would like to be ready for it, with all of our composers' music already properly credited.

So - thanks for reading and thanks for always including music composer and publisher info, whenever you use our music in a YouTube video.

Friday, April 1, 2011

Review: Samson Zoom H4 Handy Recorder

By Paul Virostek

Introduction

 

For decades it seemed professional sound recording was limited to cumbersome tape-based Nagra machines or DAT recorders that required agonizing real-time transfers. I have been recording Hollywood sound effects for over 13 years. Often I’ve heard a rare sound and wished I had a recorder handy to capture it a moment’s notice. Neither a Nagra or even a portable DAT recorder had the combination of speed, portability and sound quality I needed for professional use.

So, when Samson released its Zoom H4 Handy recorder ($299.00), I paid close attention.



The Zoom H4 was not the first portable digital recorder. The initial recorder to catch the attention of professionals was M-Audio’s Microtrack recorder. It showed promise, but was not considered seriously by pros since it lacked true 48-volt phantom power needed for the best mics. Other recorders lacked crystal-clear 24-bit recording, or the professional XLR inputs jacks needed for pure, grounded signal transmission.

The Zoom H4 stood out. It offered many eagerly awaited pro features at a consumer price: 96k/24bit recording resolution, professional XLR inputs, onboard mics, 4 tracks of recording, and it could also function as an audio interface with your Mac or PC, all for under $300.

In addition to these features, the surprisingly small size and reports of a fair on-board condenser mic with good external mic preamps made me purchase one, then three more. It has become my solution for guerilla or stealth recording.

Now, after using the recorder for a year, I’ve come to see its limitations, more strengths, and its proper place in the blossoming market of digital recorders.

The Zoom H4 is marketed toward musicians. Although I have used it exclusively for sound effects recording, musicians will enjoy the 4 track recording, mic emulation, effects processing, as well as free Cubase software. As mentioned, the recorder also functions as an audio interface so budget musicians will find everything all in one package.


Initial Impressions – Software and Hardware 

 

Two things about this recorder are apparent right out of the box: its construction and its size. The housing is plastic, and the recorder feels light and cheap. Although it hasn’t happened yet, I constantly fear that a short drop will shatter the thing. I was, however, delighted by its size. It fits comfortably in my hand and can easily be tucked into a blazer pocket.

After slipping in two AA batteries (providing about 3 hours of recording time) and a Smart Digital Card I powered it up. The start up time of about 15 seconds is long, and not nearly fast enough to capture that unexpected effect at a moments notice.

Shortly I was presented the home screen that displays battery life, recording levels, file name and duration. Initial incarnations of the H4’s firmware provided only sparse information on the screen, but Samson has been diligent with its firmware updates and additional display information, as well as other features, has been added. (Firmware updates can be found here: http://www.zoom.co.jp/english/download/software/h4.php)

A menu button on the lower centre of the recorder controls playback, and also returns to the home screen in a fashion similar to an iPod. A toggle wheel on the side of the recorder allows cycling and selection of menus options. The menus are simple, with charming icons, however it should be noted that file management and renaming is a tad arduous. It is best to save these things after you have transferred them to your computer.

I formatted the SD card, and take note settings are reset after formating, so you will have to reset your sample rate and preferences each time you format a card. The sampling rate, bit rate and file type (WAV or MP3) can be easily restored by pressing one of the four preset buttons on the left side of the recorder.

Recording 

 

The H4 offers two recording options. You can use the on-board condenser mics, or connect an external microphone of your own via the XLR/1/4i inch jacks at the base of the recorder.

The on-board mics capture consistently fair recordings. The recordings are a bi thin but capture a decent stereo image with reasonable depth. The condenser microphone is useful only in interior locations; even the slightest breeze will overwhelm the mic and ruin a recording. Samson includes a foam ball as a windshield cover, but I found it is more useful as a cat toy: it is useless in preventing wind from ruining recordings. If you are holding the recorder in your hand any small movement will be transferred to the microphones. Thankfully Samson includes a basic mic stand and mic sled.

Recording itself is serviceable, although the recording button is a bit soft. You can’t tell when you have pressed it. However, it will flash when armed, and glow solid while recording. This is fine if you are able to have the recorder visible. It becomes a bit of a problem during stealth recording and you are unable to
look at the recorder. The headphone preamp is weak and it is difficult to monitor.

A major pitfall of the Zoom H4 is the recording level switches. Most recorders have a dial to set the input levels. While the H4 does have the ability to fine-tune the input levels, you have to dig down a few menu levels to get at it, which is not helpful under stressful conditions. Otherwise, you are at the mercy of the level switches on the side of the recorder, which have three settings: low, medium and high. This means that setting your levels will be coarse, and you will risk distorting your recordings. I’ve found that setting the levels one setting lower than appropriate works well. However the lack of a dedicated level knob is a major problem with the Zoom H4.

Exterior mics can connect to the recorder by the combo XLR/1/4 inch jacks. These jacks set the recorder apart from other recorders in its class. Since the best microphones use XLR connectors you can attach proper cables without having to string a line of adapters between your microphone and the recorder. One sadly overlooked aspect is that the jacks are not self-locking. Commonly (at least to me) a mic cable can slip out of the H4.

In the end, the true test of any digital recorder is its microphone preamplifier. No matter how good a microphone is, the recording will only be as good as the preamp you are using. I was pleasantly surprised by the H4’s preamp. I usually use a Sound Devices MixPre and while the H4’s preamp cannot match the quality of a professional preamp, it performed well. I have been able increase the gain of quiet sounds by 15db in Pro Tools without any serious hiss or chip noise being introduced.

Summary 

 

I am a fan of the Samson H4, and would recommend it for both amateurs and professionals. It is especially useful for stealth recordings. I was recently in New York and while The Metropolitan Museum checked my larger recording bag at the door, I was able to smuggle the H4 past security. Also, the flexibility of the profession XLR jacks have allowed me to connect my Neumann 191 microphone directly to the recorder without using signal-degrading adapters or cables.

Overall, the H4 packs more features than its $300.00 price suggests, and is a useful tool for professionals, amateurs and hobbyists.

Summary/Bottom Line


If you can overlook a few user-interface shortcomings and the cheap construction, you will have an inexpensive ultra-portable consumer recorder packed with pro features.

Overall Rating: 4/5
Value Rating: 4.5/5

Used for: 1 year

Strengths

- 96 kilohertz 24 bit resolution
- combo XLR/1/4 inch input
- small size
- can be used as an audio interface
- price

Weaknesses

- plastic construction
- setting levels is coarse
- XLRs do not lock into jacks
- Wind on mic
- housing issues

Similar Products Used

- Edirol R9
- Sound Devices 722 and 744T
- Fostex FR-2
- Zaxcom Deva IV